Day 1 :
Toin University of Yokohama, Japan
Time : 09:30 Am-10:15 Am
Yoshinori HAYAKAWA has been engaged in medical physics. He developed simultaneous neutron monitoring system for Boron-Neutron-Capture-Therapy. He has measured first in the world acoustic pulse generated in the body of treated patient by pulsed proton beam. The phenomenon may be used to clinical purpose. He has developed Computer Numerals, New Abacus Numerals, and Universal Literacy Alphabet for improving basic education to reduce poverty. He has proposed and published an original research article of Proposal of Artificial Pandemics by Infectious Attenuated Live Influenza Vaccine to reduce victims of new influenza. Many of them can be observed in youtube without payment.
The temperature rise of seawater is the main course of abnormal weather.
Waste heat of power plants raise the seawater reported by governmental office of USA.
First, the sea surface temperature increased 0.077°C in ten years averaged over world oceans. 1.0x103 is written 1.0E3.
The total Waste heat is 1.1E21J
The total world ocean amount down to 100 meters is 3.6E19 kg.
The specific heat of water is 4.2kJ/kg=4.2E3J/kg.
From above data the seawater temperature rise is 0.07°C per 10 years. Total world oceans water down to 100meters is 3.6E19 kg.
Seawater temperature rise is 7.2 E-3°C per year, that is 0.07°C per ten years, approximately equal to the reported value.
Below is the detail of calculation.
From 1901 through 2015, Sea surface temperature rose at an average rate of 0.13°F (0.07°C) per decade. The total waste energy lost by waste heat is 1.1E21J.
PWR and BWR have an overall efficiency of about 33%. For a modern coal fired plant the efficiency is about 40%.1.0TWh=1.0E10x1.0J/sx3600s=3.6E13J
Coal and Coal products 9523,531TWh
Natural gas 5543,363TWh
Oil products 842,835TWh
Biofuels and waste 528,052TWh
Subtotal 16437781TWh Waste heat (0.60/0.40)x16437781x3.6E13J=8.9E20J
Waste heat (0.67/0.33)x2571,365x3.6E13=1.9E20J
Total Waste heat =1.1E21J
Specific heat of water
The total area of the oceans is 3.6E8 square kilometers. Ocean water weight down to 100m is 3.6E19 kg.
Temperature rise by waste heat during one year 1.1E21J/(3.6E19 kgx4.2E3J/kg)=7.2 E-3°C
in 10 years 0.072°C temperature rise of seawater down to 100m deep.
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia
Justin Sentian is an Atmospheric Scientist and currently heading the Climate Change Research Group at the Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, UMS. He has obtained his PhD in Atmospheric Science at Lancaster University (UK). Much of his research and publication contributions are in the areas of atmospheric chemistry, climate change, air quality, meteorology, environmental pollution modeling as well as environmental impact assessment. His latest research is on Stratospheric-Tropospheric Ozone Exchange in Antarctica, which he has spent more than a month during 2018/19 austral summer at Great Wall Station, Antarctica.
This study examines the impact of climate change on future surface ozone (O3) over Malaysian region under RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 climate scenarios. The weather research forecast–community multiscale air quality (WRF-CMAQ) modelling system has been applied for the baseline period (year 2010) and the future day period (years 2050 and 2100) during the winter and summer monsoons. The simulation of WRF agrees well with observation datasets in simulating the surface temperature. However, precipitation did not perform well. The future projection revealed that the surface temperature increased across the Malaysian region, while patterns of total precipitation were varied. The study also identified model deficiencies of WRF-CMAQ in simulating air quality in the Malaysian region. RCP simulations reproduced the observed and reanalysis dataset for O3 mixing ratio with moderate values in statistical analysis. Compared with the present scenario, a small decrease in the O3 concentration was found under RCP8.5 scenario, while a large decrease was found for the RCP4.5 scenario except for the winter monsoon. In 2100, O3 reduced by 1.4% (15.2%) and 4.5% (25.8%) during winter (summer) monsoons under the RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios, respectively. Overall, the decrease in O3 was found to be affected by climate change, as well as changes in ozone oxidants such as hydroxyl radical (OH), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and acid nitric (HNO3). Further tightening control measures on anthropogenic emissions to reduce future surface ozone may be unnecessary, since the future ozone mixing ratio did not exceed the Malaysia standard. However, continuous monitoring is vital to ensure efficient air quality management in Malaysia